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Forts

Crete in ancient times was not threatened by external enemies. The first external enemies of the island were the Romans. Therefore, till then, the fortification of cities was focused on internal enemies. After the Roman Empire (67 BC-330 AD) things changed radically. Crete became a province of the Eastern Roman Empire, which later transformed to the Byzantine Empire. At the same time, several civilizations started developing around the Mediterranean Sea.

Thus, Crete, because of its natural and geopolitical position, acquired great importance and became an "apple of discord" for the civilizations of the Mediterranean. During the First Byzantine Period (330-824) things looked calm. For that reason, combined with the internal and external problems of the Empire, the island was on the fringes of the Byzantine interest. Thus, pirate raids increased and the seaside monasteries were fortified to protect themselves.

Under these circumstances, the first storm on the island was imminent. The Saracen pirates managed to easily occupy Crete in 824, that was almost defenseless. They settled for 140 years, till 961, during which they fortified the largest town, today’s Heraklion. After continuous failures to reoccupy Crete, Nikiforos Fokas managed to free the island from pirates in 961. Then, the Byzantines built new walls, which managed to keep invaders away for a few more centuries.

In 1206, Crete passed into the hands of the Genoese, who immediately gave particular importance to the fortification of the island. Within a few years the fortified three castles and 12 fortresses, but still the Venetians managed to occupy the island in 1209. The Venetian Era in Crete lasted for 4.5 centuries and was mainly dependant on the colossal fortification structures. The best Venetian engineers built the Great Castle of Candia (Heraklion). The Turks managed to take over Candia in 1669 after 22 years (!) of besieging and immediately started restoring the Venetian Forts and built a lot of small fortresses across the Cretan Territory, called Koules. The Turks took care of their forts till the end of their presence on the island.

Even today, visitors can get an idea of what the fortified cities of Crete were like, as the walls are still in excellent condition. The impressive castles in Chania, Rethymnon and Heraklion and the fortresses on the islands of Souda, Gramvousa, Spinalonga are but a few samples of Cretan fort architecture.

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Castles
The Byzantines used to call castles, the towns that were surrounded by walls. Thus, according to this definition, we present the castles of Crete, with the greatest of all being the Big Castle of Candia (today’s Heraklion). There were several smaller fortified towns, such as Chania, Rethymnon, Sitia and Ierapetra, mainly walled during the Venetian Era.
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Turkish Forts (Koules)
During the Cretan Revolution of 1866-1869, the Ottoman Empire was forced to send several pashas in Crete, but the effort proved fruitless. The latest Pasha sent to the island was Avni Pasha, who faced the continuing resistance of the Cretans and decided to change his operational tactics. Thus, the measures he took were: He provided political protection to those who declared allegiance to the muftis. The Turkish fleet ruled the...
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Towers and Chateaus
The construction of towers was one of the several defensive measures taken by the rulers of Crete (mainly Venetians and Turks) to strengthen their domination and protect them from the ongoing revolutionary movements of the Cretans. Towers were also built by the Byzantines (between 961AD-1204AD so as to protect the province of Crete from the raids of pirates. A tower was a tall edifice built on a strong base, used mainly for defensive purposes. Its shape was circular, semicircular,...
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Agios Stefanos fort

The village of Agios Stefanos (or Gra) in Sitia province, located between Pefki and Stavrohori villages, is built on a high hill. Atop the hill there is a rock which the locals call Kastellos or Fortezza, atop of which there are the ruins of a Venetian fortress.

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Paleokastro Fort, Aptera

Paleokastro fort was built by the Venetians on the site of the ancient town Aptera, which was aimed to protect the Souda Bay from possible attacks or invasions. The walls, which were oriented from north to south in some places were 1.5m wide, 3m high and was equipped with arched tanks. A wide road connected Palekastro to the sea.

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Fortress Fortezza in Rethymnon

Fortezza fort dominates the hill Palekastro beside the old town of Rethymnon and is one of the biggest fortresses of the Venetian Era. It has been built on the site of the citadel of ancient Rithimna and the Temple of Artemis Rokkea. The grand pentagonal fort was built in the 1573 and has perimeter 1300m long.

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Fragokastelo Fortress

Small, well-preserved, leaning on the edge of a desert plain of the Libyan Sea in Sfakia around the mountains, Fragokastelo unfolds even today the skein of history, a story full of memories and mysteries. The "castle of Drosoulites" was built by the Venetians in the period 1371-1374, aiming to protect them from Sfakians, who were lead by the six brothers Patsis who constantly bothered occupiers, who could not complete the project.

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Spinalonga Islet

Spinalonga is a small island located at the entrance of Elounda lagoon and north of the Gulf of Mirabello. It has an area of 85 acres and its maximum height is 53 meters. The history of the island still inspires awe. It has been a Venetian fortress, a castle colony, a rebel refuge, a place of exile for lepers, a communication link with Cairo during the Second World War.

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Souda Islet

Souda is the name of the small island that stands like a guard in the entrance of the gulf of Souda., a natural harbor protected by the high mountains the east of Chania, on the northeast side of the port of Chania.

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Thodorou Islet

The island of Agioi Theodoroi or Thodorou and located just opposite of the beach of Platanias in Chania, just half a mile northern. The history of the island and its ecological importance in preserving the protected species of the Cretan wild goat, make this small dot on the map very important.

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