The existence of numerous caves is inextricably linked to the rugged topography of Crete. People lived in caves thousands of years ago, as evidenced by the prehistoric carvings in the cave Skordilakia by Asfendou. Moreover, today's religious tradition in the caves, which hosts cavernous chapels, is an evolution of the worship of ancient gods inside caves.
Originally, the Minoans worshipped their major deities, such as Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, in caves. Later, they placed the birth and upbringing of the king of the gods, Zeus, in the Diktaean and Idaean caves, turning them into important religious centers. During the Byzantine era, caves which according to tradition hosted Saints, such as Saint Paul, Gerasimos and John Xenos, were converted to important ascetic communities. Many pages of Cretan history were also written in the caves of Crete, such as the massacres in the caves of Melidoni, Milatos, Krionerida, Xotikospilios and Tigani at Gramvousa.
Many caves are of very high speleological and ecological significance. Caves with rich decoration which are open to visitors are the Diktaean Cave by Psychro, Gerontospilios by Melidoni and Sfendonis by Zoniana. Besides the caves of religious or historical value, Crete has more than 4.500 mapped caves and sinkholes, available to each experienced speleologist who wants to enjoy their rich decoration and fauna. Areas that host a large number of caves, ideal for cavers, is mount Stroumboulas by Heraklion, the Geopark of Sitia, the Geopark of Psiloritis and Melidoni area in the White Mountains. The three deepest explored sinkholes in Greece are all located in Crete.
Cave Sarhos, Honos or Nychteridospilios is located west of the village Sarhos, at an altitude of 276m. It is one of the largest and most important caves of Crete, which is particularly loved by cavers because of its complexity and large length. The total paths in the cave exceed the length of 1500m, while the depth of the cavern reaches 230m.
Mougri cave is located in the middle of Kouloukonas mountains, just northwest of Vossakos monastery. It was formed within the “Plattenkalk” rocks, probably along one of the big faults in the area.
The cavern of Hosto Nero is found in the region Selia of Youchtas mountain near the road that leads to the top of Afentis Christos. It is located at an altitude of about 720 meters in the southern top of the holy mountain and in order for anyone to see it he/she has to enter through a narrow hole. This cavern has 3 rooms and many corridors that connect them all with the first room of 7 meters length that has enough light because of its big opening.
Tafkoura cave is located at Located at Petradolakia at an altitude 1480 meters, approximately 13 km south of Anogia. It is classified as pothole and its explored depth is 860m and the total length is 6570 meters. It is considered as the largest and deepest cavern of Psiloritis Mount and the 3rd in Greece.
Just outside the village Kali Sykia of St. Basil district, Rethymno Prefecture, on the road that leads to the eerie plateau with the chapel of St. Andrew we meet the cave Chonos, at the homonym area. The entrance is completely hidden by bushes and barely fits a crawling person.
The cave is located 25 km west of Heraklion, by Marathos village, at an altitude of 545m, after the abandoned quarry of Arkalokefalo. The entrance (2.10m x 1m) is not easily visible because of dense vegetation, while the total length of the runways is 153m.
One of the very beautiful caves that characterize this region is the cave near the exit of the wild gorge of Sfakias. The marine cave of Sfakias is not simply a sea cave but a system of holes and rooms. It has 6-7 different entrances and a few meters inside the cave, all the corridors are merged to a common cave.
The spring and the cave of Kormokopos is located northwest of Agios Ioannis, on the east side of the canyon Eligia. The path from Agios Ioannis needs about 1.5 hour. It starts as a beautiful walk through the forest of old pine and cypress trees, and ends, almost suddenly in a wild and imposing landscape.