The mountains of Ida, better known as Psiloritis, are located in the center of Crete and cover a large part of Heraklion and Rethymnon Prefectures. Among its many peaks and the offshoots of the main massif, the five highest peaks are the most dominant: Holy Cross (2456m), Agathias (2424m), Stolistra (2325m), Voulomenou (2267m) and Kousakas (2209m). Indeed the peak of the Holy Cross is just 3m higher than of the highest peak of the White Mountains (called Pahnes), being the highest point of Crete.
Psiloritis offers an amazing experience to those who try to know it better, and there you can see some of the most impressive landscapes of wild beauty. Deep caves, karstic formations, deep gorges, small plateaus, pine and oak woods, villages on the edge of the cliff, bare alpine zones: all that make up the unique scenery Psiloritis.
The towering Ida always caused awe to its visitors. Thus, the ancient Minoans considered that as a sacred mountain, where many myths are positioned. The cave of Ideon Andron, close to the wild plateau of Nida, was linked to the upbringing of Zeus, the most important God. Nearby, the sacred spring of Zominthos and the small town, was used as a sanctuary.
The cult of Psiloritis continued even in Christian times. Even today you can visit the stone church of the Holy Cross on the top of the homonym peak, which was built long ago. On 14 September, each year, many locals from all over Crete trek to the Holy Cross, via the path that starts from the plateau of Nida (4-5 hours climbing) and stay overnight at the top, to participate in the Church on the next morning (15 September is the Holy Cross fest). The view from the top is breathtaking, as you can see Crete in all its width, from Heraklion to Asterousia mountains, but also from Gavdos to Chrissi islet. It is a unique experience that anyone should have, as long as you get properly prepared for the cold night in the 2500m altitude (the temperature falls below freezing point even in August). Also there is no vegetation and water over 2000m, so be sure you have water and a hat while ascending.
Rouvas gorge at Psiloritis Range
Previously Psiloritis was covered by large pine forests, which are now very limited. The remaining ones, however, indicate how the green slopes used to be a few centuries ago. One of the largest forests of Crete, near the Gergeri village, the holly wood of Rouvas, is home to endemic and rare species of plants and animals. Morever, the southern slopes of Psiloritis, from Zaros to Vorizia, host a rare pineforest. Other smaller forests are these in the plateau Vromonero next to Kroussonas and Pardi, near Amari valley.
The local fauna is very rich and Psiloritis is extremely important for the biodiversity of Crete. Psiloritis is home to rare birds of prey, such as bearded vultures, common vultures, golden eagles and red-tailed hawks. Also, the forest of Rouvas shelters one of the rarest mammals in Europe, the “ghost” Cretan Wildcat.
Apart from the woods of Rouvas, Vromonero and Pardi, you can visit the beautiful villages around the Psiloritis slopes. In mountainous Mylopotamos area, with Anogia being its capital, you will meet authentic Cretan people, and on the villages on the south slopes of Psiloritis you will enjoy the magnificent views of the plain of Messara. From Anogia you can visit the Nida Plateau and the cave Ideon Andron, the ancient Zominthos and Skinakas Observatory. You can also visit the plateau Livadi and return to Heraklion via the alternative road that runs along Gaidourorachi Gorge.
The Ida is full of caves with the largest cave being the magical Sfendoni in Zoniana, which can be visited. Other caves are those of Kamilari in Tylisos, Gerontospilios in Melidoni, Doxa in Marathi, the cave of Kamares, Chonos in Sarhos and Marathospilios. You can also visit the karstic Voulismeno Aloni near Tylisos, formed after the collapse of a large cave.
Melidoni Cave in north Psiloritis outskirts
The gigantic mountain Psiloritis stores huge amounts of water while snow on the peaks remains till May or June. These quantities, through underground rivers, reach many areas around the Mountains. You can visit the beautiful springs in Spili, the lake Votomos in Zaros, the dam of Faneromeni in Messara Plain, and the springs of Almyros near Heraklion.
The mountains of Psiloritis are crossed by wild and deep gorges. It Is noteworthy to mention the lush gorge of Agios Nikolaos in Rouvas, the rugged gorge in Vorizia, the canyon of Almiros starting from Stroumboulas Plateau and the Platania Gorge in Amari valley.
East of Voriza village, at the foot of Psiloritis, starts an arid canyon with holly trees that leads to the plateau of Nida Plateau and the cave Ideon Antron. The gorge is very steep at the beginning with small waterfalls coming from the brecciated steep limestone cliffs.
The canyon of Zoniana is located south of Zoniana village. Starting at an altitude of 950m, it ends at the village at an altitude of 650m. Through the gorge runs the "serpentine" Oaxis river that has water till spring. The gorge is easily accessible and safe for hiking, as its slope is small.
The shelter is located at Lakos Migerou position by Livadia, and is accessible by paved road. From here starts the shortest path to the top of Holy Cross, the highest on Psiloritis Mount. The shelter is manged by the Cultural Association of Livadia village (+30 2834061489). The shelter has 6 beds, wc, water and fireplace.
The gorge of Gaidourorachi or Kroussonas is located 3km west of the village Kroussonas and crosses the Psiloritis Mt. Starting from ancient Zominthos, near Anogia, it ends at Kitharida village, near Kroussonas.
The Skinakas Observatory is a research facility operated jointly by the Foundation of Research and Technology - Hellas (F.O.R.T.H.), the University of Crete and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics of Germany.
The Plateau of Vromonero or Lakkos Limas is located at an altitude of 1300m, 10km west of the village Kroussonas, in an amazing location east of the summit Skinakas of Psiloritis Mt, where the homonym observatory of the University of Crete is located. It can be accessed via a dirt track running through the gorge of Halasia, which starts from Livadi plateau and ends in Krousonas.
The shelter of Samari or Toumbotos Prinos is located at an altitude of 1600m on the western outskirts of Psiloritis Mt. The shelter can be accessed by hiking 4 hours from Fourfouras village (part of the European E4 foot trail) or driving in a 12km long dirt road starting from the village Kouroutes.
The Forest Pardi is one of the finest remaining holly woods of Crete, near the village Kouroutes, 53km southeast of Rethymno. Here the steep western slopes of Psiloritis meet with the plain of Amari, creating a magical and unknown majestic landscape.